linux下开启mysql慢查询,分析查询语句

数据库是很容易产生瓶颈的地方,mysql中最影响速度的就是那些查询非常慢的语句,这些慢的语句,可能是写的不够合理或者是大数据下多表的联合查询等等,所以我们要找出这些语句,分析原因,加以优化。

一,开启mysql的慢查询

方法1,用命令开启慢查询

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mysql> show variables like "%long%";         //查看一下默认为慢查询的时间10秒  
+-----------------+-----------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+-----------------+-----------+
| long_query_time | 10.000000 |
+-----------------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> set global long_query_time=2; //设置成2秒,加上global,下次进mysql已然生效
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show variables like "%slow%"; //查看一下慢查询是不是已经开启
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
| log_slow_queries | OFF |
| slow_launch_time | 2 |
| slow_query_log | OFF |
| slow_query_log_file | /var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> set slow_query_log='ON'; //加上global,不然会报错的。
ERROR 1229 (HY000): Variable 'slow_query_log' is a GLOBAL variable and should be set with SET GLOBAL
mysql> set global slow_query_log='ON'; //启用慢查询
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.28 sec)

mysql> show variables like "%slow%"; //查看是否已经开启
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
| log_slow_queries | ON |
| slow_launch_time | 2 |
| slow_query_log | ON |
| slow_query_log_file | /var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log |
+---------------------+---------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

方法2,修改mysql的配置文件my.cnf

在[mysqld]里面加上以下内容

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long_query_time = 2  
log-slow-queries = /var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log

重起一下
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart

 

二,分析工具

分析工具干什么事的呢,其实就是把mysql-slow.log里面记录下来的数据,分析一下显示出来。其实自己写一个shell脚本也是可以把要的信息取出来的。我们来看一下mysql-slow.log里面到底是什么东西

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[root@BlackGhost mysql]# cat mysql-slow.log     //查看命令  
/usr/sbin/mysqld, Version: 5.6.31 (MySQL Community Server (GPL)). started with:
Tcp port: 3306 Unix socket: /tmp/mysql.sock
Time Id Command Argument
# Time: 100814 13:28:30
# User@Host: root[root] @ localhost []
# Query_time: 10.096500 Lock_time: 0.045791 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 2374192
SET timestamp=1281763710;
select count(distinct ad_code) as x from ad_visit_history where ad_code in (select ad_code from ad_list where media_id=15);
# Time: 100814 13:37:02
# User@Host: root[root] @ localhost []
# Query_time: 10.394134 Lock_time: 0.000091 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 2374192
SET timestamp=1281764222;
select count(distinct ad_code) as x from ad_visit_history where ad_code in (select ad_code from ad_list where media_id=15);
# Time: 100814 13:37:16
# User@Host: root[root] @ localhost []
# Query_time: 4.608920 Lock_time: 0.000078 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 1260544
SET timestamp=1281764236;
select count(*) as cou from ad_visit_history where ad_code in (select ad_code from ad_list where id=41) order by id desc;

看到了,就是记录一下sql语句的执行情况,包括执行时间,锁定时间等,所以要不要分析工具看个人情况,分析工具很多,在这儿只说一下mysql自带的慢查询分析工具mysqldumpslow的使用方法。

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[root@BlackGhost bin]# mysqldumpslow -h  
Option h requires an argument
ERROR: bad option

Usage: mysqldumpslow [ OPTS... ] [ LOGS... ]

Parse and summarize the MySQL slow query log. Options are

--verbose verbose
--debug debug
--help write this text to standard output

-v verbose
-d debug //查错
-s ORDER what to sort by (t, at, l, al, r, ar etc), 'at' is default //排序方式query次数,时间,lock的时间和返回的记录数来排序
-r reverse the sort order (largest last instead of first) //倒排序
-t NUM just show the top n queries //显示前N多个
-a don't abstract all numbers to N and strings to 'S'
-n NUM abstract numbers with at least n digits within names //抽象的数字,至 少有n位内的名称
-g PATTERN grep: only consider stmts that include this string //配置模式
-h HOSTNAME hostname of db server for *-slow.log filename (can be wildcard), //mysql所以机器名或者IP
default is '*', i.e. match all
-i NAME name of server instance (if using mysql.server startup script)
-l don't subtract lock time from total time //总时间中不减去锁定时间

 

例子:

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[root@BlackGhost bin]# ./mysqldumpslow -s r -t 20 /usr/local/mysql/mysql-slow.log

[root@BlackGhost bin]# ./mysqldumpslow -s r -t 20 -g 'count' /usr/local/mysql/mysql-slow.log

 

 

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